On the regional level, egypt prior to the 25th january revolution. Abstractnot only are egyptian museums an asset in developing the countrys economy, but they also play a pivotal social role in developing communitybased activities and fostering dialogue. Domestic responses to the egyptian revolution of 2011 wikipedia. Introduction egypt has been undergoing a tumultuous and uncertain democratic transition for more than two years.
About egypts economy egypts economy in 2011 banks in egypt could record a wave of cash withdrawals when they resume their operations, such examples have included companies among the hardest hit violent protests against president hosni mubarak, says bloomberg. The egyptian revolution carries a challenging transition phase, starting out with problems such as low foreign direct investments fdi, a high budget deficit, a high debt. Democracy is not yet consolidated in egypt, as witnessed by the chaotic political developments that have taken place since 2011. Antigovernment protesters celebrate in tahrir square in downtown cairo, egypt, egypt friday, feb. The military, the media and public perceptions in egypt.
The date was set by various youth groups to coincide with the annual egyptian police holiday as a statement against increasing police brutality during the. Abdullas research interests include the uses and effects of new media, particularly the internet, the link between social media and political activism, and public service broadcasting. The common slogan of the protesters throughout arab spring was the people want to bring down the regime aissa, 2012. The economy is under continuous strain because of the turbulent process of political transition. In short, the revolution is explained by the increasing density and pervasiveness of social, economic and political grievances that culminated into an uncontrollable anger towards a diminishing legitimacy of mubaraks thirtyyearsrule of the country. Thursday, march 3, 2011 midshipmen witness egyptian revolution email this article print this story from the international programs office two naval academy midshipmen studying language in egypt unwittingly became witnesses to history in the making. Immediately after the assassination of sadat, a state of emergency was declared which remained in force until 2012. Whether it will be or not will depend on many factors. Hizb albanna wa altanmiyya party of construction and development, egypt, 2011,translated by zakaria merdi for the islamic political party platform project, university.
Egypts revolution and the last days of mubarak, 3032011. Opinion egypts three revolutions the new york times. So it is likely that egypt will adopt legislation regulating digital media in the near future, and some news reports indicate that it will egypts tumultuous changes since egypts january 2011 revolution, widely described as a revolution, egypt has witnessed tumultuous changes. Hellyer, june 1, 2011 a wide array of political groups and youngpeople movements called for the second day of rage last week. Unlike the militaries of syria, libya, and yemen, the eaf stood on the peoples side, and directed the country towards democracy. Mechanisms of violence and nonviolence patricia bauer bertold schweitzer introduction the starting point for our considerations is the frequently expressed view that the 2011 revolution in egypt from the start of the mass demonstrations on january 25th up to the resignation of president hosni mubarak on february.
News websites and defending freedom alternative voices. The date was set by various youth groups to coincide with the annual egyptian police holiday as a statement against increasing police brutality during the last few years of mubaraks presidency. A chronicle of the revolution that ended the threedecadelong presidency of hosni mubarak. Aug 14, 20 cnns becky anderson looks at how events have unfolded in egypt since the revolution began in january 2011. Jun 01, 2011 thus the january revolution in egypt deserves the praise heaped on it by a large number of world leaders who did not stop at describing it as a great revolution but went on to talk admiringly of. The egyptian revolution of january 2011 failed and did not change the fundamental political structure of the country, which ended up under military rule. Beginning in tunisia, and spreading to as many as seventeen arab countries, the street protests of the arab spring in 2011 empowered citizens and banished. On 25 january 2011, known as the day of anger arabic. The reactions have generally been either measured or supportive of the egyptian people, with most. Inspired by the events in tunisia, egyptians organized and participated in mass protests to oust presi.
Abstract this paper examines the influence on the egyptian revolution of 2011 by preceding social movements and historical acts of contention. Not only did former president hosni mubarak who has ruled egypt for 30 years step down, but the youth who were once conceived as incapable of change were hailed as those who brought about this transformation. Egyptian revolution of 2011 contentious repertoires and egyptian innovation anders dalfelt. Political participation in cairo after the january 2011. As like other state institutions after the fall of hosni mubarak, the justice system. The egyptian people supported by the egyptian armed forces eaf succeeded in toppling the 30year rule of the former president mubarak. An uncertain history of revolution by mariana gallegos dupuis v00799794 supervised by dr. From 1981 to 2011, hosni mubarak was in power under emergency law with his son gamal appearing to be a likely successor for the presidency. The egyptian revolution carries a challenging transition phase, starting out with problems such as low foreign direct investments fdi, a high budget deficit, a high debt rate, a high unemployment rate, a high poverty rate, and a low standard of living.
The years to come will no doubt witness an expansion of the political and cultural archive of the egyptian and arab uprisings, accompanied by much academic work on their impact and significance. Soon the demonstrations grew into a mass protest against the government by people of all walks of life, in cairo and in other major cities in egypt, most. Beginning in december 2010, unprecedented mass demonstrations against poverty, corruption, and political repression broke out in several arab countries, challenging the authority of some of the most entrenched regimes in the middle east and north africa. Such was the case in egypt, where in 2011 a popular uprising forced one of the regions.
The arab world has been moving towards change in successive events since the beginning of 2011. The egyptian revolution of 25 january 2011 not only marked a turning point in egypts political landscape, but also significantly affected the countrys economy and labour market. The story of the egyptian revolution still resists any kind of closure despite the ascendance of the military regime once again to power. Hizb al tanmiyya party of construction and development. What motivates a woman to participate in a revolution, such as the egyptian uprising of january. Pdf why did the 2011 egyptian revolution fail alexey. More than three years after the january 25 revolution toppled then egyptian president hosni mubarak, egypt continues to struggle with an authoritarian media sector and constraints on freedom of expression. Egypt s economy in 2011 banks in egypt could record a wave of cash withdrawals when they resume their operations, such examples have included companies among the hardest hit violent protests against president hosni mubarak, says bloomberg. Social media sparked, accelerated egypts revolutionary. You can send us a message through our contact form. Jul 15, 2011 the struggle to document egypt s revolution. Women, culture, and the january 2011 egyptian revolution. Data was collected in the field by an international survey research firm operating in egypt, under the supervision of david williams from williams and associates of salem, massachusetts. Fireworks burst over tahrir square and egypt exploded with joy and tears of relief.
The death of khaled saeed in june 2010 became a similar rallying point for activists in egypt. This role was emphasised after the 2011 revolution. Authorities could take off the financial system to avoid this risk. The state of the egyptian revolution project on middle east. The electoral framework in egypts continuing transition.
Arab spring used their powers vehemently to crush the demonstrators and consequently the peaceful protesters also became violent. Opposition parties, activists and religious bodies have been staunchly demanding egyptian president hosni mubaraks resignation, with the exception of fearful christian authorities, who called for staying away from the protests although christian individuals have taken part. The characteristics of the coverage of the revolution in three egyptian newspapers chapter 5. The last referendum which took place in 2007 was in relation to constitutional amendments as well, but participation was less than 5%. They assumed roles of leadership and at times outnumbered male participants biggs, 2011. The egyptian revolution of 1952 overthrew king faruk and nasser became.
She is the author of the internet in egypt and the arab world arabic, afaq publications, 2005. Revolution of 25 january, womens rights, digital media introduction the stories of women and revolutions have always intertwined, and the revolution of 2011 brought women in egypt new opportunities and avenues for participation in social and political reform. The vital role of egypts judiciary, in the two and half years since the start of the revolution of 25 january 2011, has been amply demonstrated by the relentless legal bombshells that have been constantly drop ping on the public scene. Following the 25 january 2011 revolution, major reforms are underway in egypt. Sadats vicepresident, hosni mubarak born 1928, a former air force general, continued on the path that sadat had laid out. Zine alabidine ben ali from power, protests against the first demonstrations occurred in tunisia in december 2010, triggered by the selfimmolation of a young man frustrated by tunisias high unemployment. The repressive and violent nature of the arab regimes also ranks high on the list of major factors culminating in the 2011 arab uprisings. Most of the arab regimes, with the exception of a few, are classified as highly authoritarian systems in whic h political power is monopolize d by the few rather than shared by the many. The state of the egyptian revolution the next phase of the revolution by h. Before the demonstrations began, there was an uprising in tunisia. This change resulted in successful and semi successful revolutions. International reactions to the egyptian revolution of 2011 refer to external responses to the events that took place in egypt between 25 january and 10 february 2011, as well as some of the events after the collapse of the government of egyptian president hosni mubarak, such as mubaraks trial. This paper suggests a growing significance of the economic motives of social and political change through highlighting the economic dimensions of egypt before 25th january 2011.
The situation in egypt before the revolution egypts relationship with the united states and israel the research questions chapter2. The coverage of egypts revolution reuters institute. January 25 revolution days after a popular uprising in tunisia, known as the jasmine revolution, forced pres. Egyptian revolution, also known as arab spring or arab uprising, was a shock for international community because egypt has been seen as one of the strongest military state in north africa region. The military, the media and public perceptions in egypt following the downfall of president hosni mubarak in january 2011, and more markedly after the july 20 ouster of president mohamed morsi, egypts militar y assumed a new role in national politics. Timeline of the egyptian revolution of 2011 wikipedia. Pdf the egyptian revolution and post socioeconomic impact. From movement to revolution 3 against bin ali, and egyptians, emboldened by the tunisians, sought to emulate their experience. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. After egypt s january 2011 revolution ousted former president hosni mubarak, a conversation began amongst a number of international and egyptian human rights groups regarding the need to promote international transitional justice precedents within the egyptian context and to raise public awareness of them. Impact of the socioeconomic situation post the egyptian revolution 2011 people who lived below the po verty line reached 27% according to the. In the weeks after that, demonstrations and riots began in egypt. Leading scholarship will be examined and reasons for the revolution s failure will be. For the first time in modern egyptian history we had over 40% of eligible egyptian voters participating in a referendum, participating in an election.
Demands of the egyptian revolution and the newlyemerging actors. The state of women in egypt is similarly precarious. During the first months of 2011, the egyptian politi cal system was. Files from al jazeera relating to the egyptian revolution of 2011. Postrevolution regimes have not capitalized on opportunities to reform state and private media, and. Interviews were collected using the inperson, facetoface methodology by trained professional. Causes of the arab spring causes of the arab spring may be described as following. Women participated in the egyptian revolution of 2011 in unprecedented numbers. Andrew wender a graduating essay submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements, in the honours programme. The january 2011 revolution revealed a centralized ict system with a. For the degree of bachelor of arts in the department of history university of victoria april 4, 2017. Activists in egypt call for an uprising in their own country, to protest against poverty.
The egyptian revolution is also referred to as the egyptian protests, days of rage, the papyrus revolution and the lotus revolution. The electoral framework in egypt s continuing transition. Abdou, zeinab zaazou modern sciences and arts university msa, egypt abstract. Egypts first revolution was to get rid of the dead hand, the second revolution was to get rid of the deadheads and the third revolution was to escape from the. Prejanuary 25, 2011 actions the young, patriotic, modern, and disciplined organizers did not plan the overthrow of the. The quest to understand what the driving forces behind the 2011 revolution are is important for many reasons. Egyptians bring down dictatorship of hosni mubarak, 2011. The egyptian revolution of 2011, also known as the january 25 revolution arabic. It is also called the day of anger and the day of revolt. On february11, 2011, egypt entered a new epoch of its history. This study explored the experience of the revolution in cairo from the.
Pdf the egyptian revolution of 2011 has made a significant impact and will be recorded in the political history of the region. The egyptian revolution and post socioeconomic impact doaa s. The evaluation sample consists of 2,980 individuals, with equal numbers assigned to treatment and control. In the decade prior to 2011, egypt saw a variety of limited openings in its political. The recent emergence of popular protest movements that have overthrown authoritarian regimes in tunisia and egypt and that are challenging similar regimes in libya, yemen, bahrain, and syriahas revived memories of the shah and his fall. Text version below transcribed directly from audio there are very few moments in our lives where we have the privilege to witness history taking place. In taking on such new responsibilities and control, the military also came to realize. Egyptian women gained the right to vote and stand for election in 1956. Pdf the museums of egypt after the 2011 revolution. The coverage of egypts revolution in the egyptian, american. Egyptian revolution september 7, 2011 pomeps briefings 6. Hizb alnour party of light, egypt, 2011, translated by.
Egypt, that has supported decolonisation movements and led panarabism by soft and hard powers tools in the 60s and early 70s, has lost its position. In december 2010, protests in tunisia sparked by the death of mohamed bouazizi turned into a revolution. The guardian newspaper published a report on 4th february 2011 that estimated. Fabian summary idsa issue brief five years later, on 25 january 2016, tahrir square witnessed about 300 egyptians gathered there to deplore the 2011 revolution and to thank president field marshal sisi and the egyptian police for installing a repressive police state. The struggle to document egypts revolution egypt the. From movement to revolution 1 conditions for protest, dissent, uprising or revolt are universal and deal primarily with issues that affect peoples daily lives and ultimately have a negative impact on quality of life of society. The economic causes of the egyptian revolution january 25. A look at turmoil in egypt since the 2011 revolution youtube. Jan 25, 2011 the revolution started on police day, a public holiday, 25 january 2011, with a series of peaceful demonstrations in cairo that were originally meant to draw attention to police brutality. A timeline of key events in egypt since the 2011 uprising. Media in category egyptian revolution of 2011 the following 200 files are in this category, out of 270 total. Relative population growth rates in egypt, % per year, 20032009 source.
International reactions to the egyptian revolution of 2011. The women of the egyptian uprising pace university. Citizens are back in the most direct manner, using the street, regaining control over the street as a political arena, which once again did not exist in egypt since 1952. The vital role of egypt s judiciary, in the two and half years since the start of the revolution of 25 january 2011, has been amply demonstrated by the relentless legal bombshells that have been constantly drop ping on the public scene. Egypt s democratic revolution beginning on 25 january 2011, for eighteen consecutive days, egyptians from across the social, political and religious spectrum descended on cairos tahrir square in a culmination of collective dissent and proactive empowerment. Futuh actually files for candidacy, that will likely be grounds. The role of women in the egyptian 25th january revolution. Pdf on jan 19, 2016, noha bakr and others published the egyptian revolution find, read and cite. The 25th of january 2011 marks an important date for egypt and the world. In the 2011 egyptian revolution, many demonstrations and riots were held in egypt. Despite this contribution, the key role of women has been downplayed in much of the literature of the period alnatour.
There have been numerous domestic responses to the egyptian revolution of 2011. Remarks on the historic revolution in egypt delivered 11 february 2011 authenticity certified. Increasing use of social media among activists centered. The national council for women ncw, is the government entity responsible for promoting womens rights. The struggle against radical islamists characterized his presidency. The economic causes of the egyptian revolution january 25, 2011. According the license, you must attribute the footage to al jazeera but not in any way that suggests that we endorse you or your use of our work.711 900 731 1564 1358 593 1384 834 575 762 1260 75 979 1491 1259 1024 649 23 1615 1445 759 782 789 898 752 505 468 1515 1125 199 658 1404 298 1114 1251 1653 878 1215 542 1487 831 621 942 210